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glossary






Here is where you'll find definitions to technology oriented words used in this course. 

Another easy way to find definitions is to go to Google Define --- http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/searchh.htm#define



A

asynchronous   communication which does not occur at the same time or place.  Examples of this are emails, blogs and discussion forums.

asynchronous Learning Networks   ALN networks of education and training modules or courses where students learn in online courses in contrast to synchronized presentations in traditional classrooms.

audio   Voice, music, and other sounds recorded and stored in analog or digital form.

authoring   Developing (writing of text, recording of audio, importing of video, inserting graphics, etc.) hypertext and hypermedia learning, entertainment, and reference materials. 

authoring software   This term refers to software that enables the creation of multimedia or hypertext documents and presentations.

avatar  This term refers to an interactive representation of a human in a virtual reality environment; the term was popularized by Neal Stephenson's novel "Snow Crash."

AVI  Audio Video Interleaved digitized video files (with audio tracks) that can be played on Windows playback. The Media Player (mplayer.exe) file that is included in Windows operating systems runs AVI files.



B

bandwidth  bits per second that determines the amount of data, audio, and video that can flow over the network. The higher the bandwidth, the faster the download.

Bit  Binary DigIT. A single digit number in base-2 (either a one or a zero). This is the smallest unit of computerized data.

blog or Weblog   An online journal which can be used by an individual or an organization.  Blogs can be personal or professional.  They can be in text form, audio (see podcast) or video (see vlog). 

Blogging  The act of writing on a blog or commenting on another person's blog.

browser  The software application that allows you to view Internet pages.

BTW An acronym often used in e-mail messages and chat sessions to mean: "by the way."


C

CC = Courtesy Copy, derived from the non-digital Carbon Copy. A way to send an e-mail message to a person other than the main recipient or recipients. The CC'ed party can see that they are not the main recipient of the letter.

Computer Literacy  The ability to use keyboards, word processors, printers and other computer accessories.

control key (CTRL) = A key used to access commands through the keyboard rather than the menus. CTRL commands are commonly shortcuts.

control panel  A window you can open to adjust various aspects of your computer, such as the volume, fonts, desktop background, mouse speed, and clock.

CPU  Central Processing Unit. The CPU is the hardware that most people consider the "brain" of the computer. It takes instructions from software, makes calculations, and helps run the show!


D

desktop   The background behind all your windows, menus, and dialog boxes: your virtual desk. You can change the look of your desktop by applying different properties to it through your control panel.

Digital literacy   This refers to understanding the various forms of information found on the internet.

domain name    The unique address name for an Internet site. The part on the left is the most specific, and the part on the right is the most general.

download    To save a file onto your computer from another source, like the Internet. People often download files, such as free-ware, share-ware, for installations, and sounds, movie clips, text files, or news streams onto their computer for viewing or listening.

Drop Down Menu  This is a type of navigation.  When you click on a box or button, other selections will 'drop' down so that you can see and select them.



E

Ethernet    A common method of networking computers in a Local Area Network (LAN). Ethernet can handle from 10,000,000-100,000,000 bits-per-second (or 10-100 megabits-per-second) and can be used with almost any kind of computer.


F

firewall   Hardware and/or software that separates a Local Area Network (LAN) into two or more parts for security purposes.

FTP   File Transfer Protocol. A set of rules that allows two computers to "talk" to one another while transferring files from one to another. This is the protocol used when you transfer a file from one computer to another across the Internet. Many Internet sites have publicly accessible repositories of information that can be obtained using FTP, by logging in using the account name "anonymous." These sites are called "anonymous ftp servers."


G

GIF    Graphics Interchange Format. An efficient method of storing graphics developed for CompuServe in the early 1980s. GIF files take up a small amount of disk space and can be transmitted quickly over phone lines. GIFs can be viewed on any computer platform and are best for illustrations, cartoons, logos, or similar non-photographic graphics.


H

hard drive    A device for storing information in a fixed location within your computer. The equivalent of a filing cabinet in an office, the hard drive is used for storing programs and documents that are not being used.

homepage      The page on the Internet which most often gives users access to the rest of the Web site. A site is a collection of pages.

host    The name given to any computer directly connected to the Internet. Host computers are usually associated with running computer networks, online services, or bulletin board systems. A host computer on the Internet could be anything from a mainframe to a personal computer.

HTML   Hypertext Markup Language. This is the coding language used to create sites on the World Wide Web.

hypertext   Generally any text in a file that contains words, phrases, or graphics that, when clicked, cause another document to be retrieved and displayed. Hypertext most often appears blue and underlined in Web pages.  Often called 'links'.  Hypertext links allow readers to pick and choose in what order they locate information. 



I

icon  Symbols or illustrations on the desktop or computer screen that indicate program files, documents, or other functions.

Internet Explorer  this is a browser that allows you to see websites on the internet.  It is produced by Windows and the most common browser used in Korea. 

IP Number    Internet Protocol number. A unique number consisting of four parts separated by dots, for example 129.237.247.243. This is the number assigned to a host machine which is retrieved by a DNS when a request for an Internet site is made. These numbers usually correspond to unique domain names, which are easier for people to remember.

Ipod  an MP3 player made by Apple Computers.  This player has been instrumental in the mobile audio/video podcast industry.


J

JPG or JPEG   An efficient method for storing graphic files for transmission across phone lines. Unlike GIF files, JPG files lose a little data when the image is converted, and their files are often much larger than GIFs. However, JPGs are your best choice for photographic images.


K

kilobyte (KB)   A thousand bytes.  Very often download speed is measured by how many kilobytes are being transferred per second.


L

LAN    Local Area Network. A computer network limited to the immediate area, usually the same building.


M

mailing list   A system that allows people to send e-mail to one address, which is then copied and sent to all of the other subscribers to the mail list. In this way, people who may be using different kinds of e-mail access can participate in discussions together.

menu bar   A horizontal strip at the top of a window that shows the menus available in a program.


N

newsgroup    Usenet newsgroups are Internet discussion groups whose topics are about as diverse as you can imagine. If you have an original idea for a newsgroup, and gather some people who want to subscribe, you can probably begin a newsgroup.

network     A group of connected computers that allows people to share information and equipment. Many schools have a Local Area Network and are also connected to the World Wide Web.


O

operating system (OS)    This is the programming that makes your computer run its most basic functions. Some examples are Windows 95, 98, or XP.


P

plug-in    A small piece of software that adds features to already existing, usually large, programs.

Podcast   An audio or video file that can be listened to online or downloaded for a mobile listening device.  These are most commonly stored as MP3 files

Post  a blog entry written by the author or authors of a blog

pulldown menu      A list of options that "pulls down" when you select a menu at the top of a window. For example, the File menu in most programs is a pulldown menu that reveals commands such as open, new, and save.


R

RAM    Random Access Memory. Readable and writeable memory that acts as a storage area while the computer is on, and is erased every time the computer is turned off. This memory stores data and helps execute programs while in use.

ROM    Read Only Memory. Readable memory that cannot be corrupted by accidental erasure. ROM retains its data when the computer is turned off.

RSS feed/aggregator  Really Simple Syndication.  This is a software that allows your computer to collect blogs, updated websites, podcasts and other internet information so that you can easily view it without having to visit the individual websites. 


S

search engine    Any of a number of giant databases on the Internet which store data on Web sites and their corresponding URLs. Some popular search engines are Metacrawler, and Google.

server    A computer or software package that provides a specific service to client software running on other computers. The term can refer to a particular piece of software, such as a WWW server, or to the machine on which the software is running, hence the popular phrase: "The server's down."

shortcuts    Key strokes that enact the same commands available in the menus of a program. They are quicker and more direct, and usually involve two or three keys depressed simultaneously. An example is the save shortcut: CTRL + s on a PC.


T

Template  a framework that creates a standard visual look for webpages.

Toolbar  this is a bar shaped section on a software or internet page.  The toolbar has different icons or buttons that allow users to manipulate the page.  An example of this would be the 'save button' on Windows Office or the 'back button' on your internet window.


 

U

URL   Uniform Resource Locators. This is the address of any given site on the Internet. The URL of this site is: http://www.njlong.com/Docs/assign1/index.htm


V

virtual  With regard to memory, virtual refers to temporarily storing information on the hard drive. Virtual memory is controlled automatically by the operating system.

Virtual Learning Environment   This is a computer simulated environment that allows learning to take place, often through gaming.

Vlog   This is a blend of the words video and blog and is a video posted in a blog.  The video can be brought from another source or created.


W

Widget  a widget is a piece of  HTML code that can be used to run or play things like games, calendars, clocks and counters.  They can be placed on desktops, blogs or personal websites.

wiki  a wiki is a software that allows multiple users to create and collaborate online.  The word wiki means 'quick' in Hawaiian so the software was designed for users to quickly create 'web pages'.  Teachers are using wikis to allow their students to create projects in a collaborative with each other.

word processor    The software used to produce documents, such as letters, posters, reports, and syllabi. Common word processors used in schools are MS Works, MS Word, or ClarisWorks.

WYSIWYG    What You See Is What You Get. Monitor output that closely resembles the printed output. Most software now offers WYSIWYG options, like "print preview."


Z

zipped files   Zipped files are files that are compressed and must be "unzipped" to be read. Zipped files download faster because they are smaller than an uncompressed equivalent.